Have you ever heard of IPv4 or IPv6 ? How will you feel that the Internet is now going through the tightness of Internet address.
You may have also heard that the last block of IPv4 internet addresses has also been allocated.
If you have guessed by now, then let me make it clear to you that I am talking about the underlying technology that runs Internet Protocol Addresses .
Yes, it is called IP address . Which are mehjud since the beginning of the Internet and will also end very soon. Which is now a concern.
Very soon a new technology is going to take its place which is called IPv6. IPv6 is also called the successor of IPv4.
With this new technology, not only will we get more numerical addresses, but along with this, address assignments and network security will also become easier to a great extent.
But the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 can be a bit rough and challenging. People do not know about these two technologies.
So today I thought why not give your people complete information about IPv4 and IPv6 so that you can get to know about the difference between IPv4 and IPv6 properly. Let us first know what the Internet protocol is .
What is Internet Protocol (IP)?
Almost all Network IPs combine the IP with higher-level protocols, also called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) , to create a virtual connection between destination and source.
If I can give you an example, you will probably understand more. IP is like our Indian Postal System in that this package (datagram) is first sent to be Addressed (encapsulation).
Then sent to System (Internet) by a sender. But there is no direct link between Sender and Receiver.
That package (datagram) is divided into many parts, but the address of Receiver (Destination Host) remains in all the parts.
With time each part reaches the receiver, but in different paths and different times. It determines the Postal System about Routes and Time, which is called IP here.
But the Postal System (here the Transport and Application layers) combines all the parts together and delivers it to the Receiver (Destination Host) at the right time. In TCP / IP,
The connection between the two hosts is established so that they can exchange messages among themselves for a time period.
What are Internet Protocol Versions?
If we talk about now, there are currently two versions of Internet Protocol and that is IPv4 and IPv6. IPv6 is an evolutionary upgrade in the technology of Internet Protocol.
IPv6 will coexist with the old IPv4 for some time, where there is a lot of demand for IPv6 in a condition.
What is IPv4 ?
IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4) This is the fourth revision of Internet Protocol (IP) and is used by the addressing system in the network to identify the device.
Internet Protocol has been designed in such a way that it can be used in interconnected systems of packet -switched computer communication networks.
IPv4 is the most used to connect devices in the Internet according to the Internet protocol. A 32-bit address scheme is used in IPv4 that allows 2 ^ 32 addresses (and contains approximately 4 billion addresses).
But as the Internet is growing, it is estimated that gradually IPv4 addresses will be exhausted because they are being used today in all devices such as computers, smartphones and game consoles.
All these devices of the Internet. An address is required to connect with.
What is IPv6 ?
To address these flaws in IPv4, a new Internet addressing system has been introduced and is known as Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
It can be helpful in addressing the shortage of Internet addresses.
IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) is also called IPng (Internet Protocol Next Generation) and is a new version of Internet Protocol (IP).
IETF standards committees have been used to review it so that it can completely replace IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4).
IPv6 is considered a successor of Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). It has been specially designed as an upgraded version of the Internet Protocol so that it can coexist with IPv4 for some time.
IPv6 has been designed in such a way to help the Internet grow steadily, both the number of hosts connected and the entire amount of data traffic transmitted should help to grow correctly.
IPv6 is also known as “next generation” Internet standard and was under development since mid 1990.
IPv6 was created because people felt that as the demand for IP address is increasing, then the day is not far when the IP addresses will be completely exhausted.
The Benefits of IPv6
By the way, IPv6 will help a lot in increasing the pool of addresses and there is more discussion about it,
But there are many more technological changes in IPv6, which makes IP protocol more prominent.
- No need to do NAT (Network Address Translation)
- Private address collisions will not happen anymore
- Better multicast routing का होना
- Simpler header format
- Simplified, more efficient routing का होना
- True quality of service (QoS), also known as “flow labeling”
- Built-in authentication और privacy support
- Flexible options और extensions
- Easier administration (no more DHCP required)
How does IPv4 and IPv6 work?
- In IPv4, 32 bits long (4 bytes) address is used, while in IPv6, 128 bits address is used and along with it they are separated according to 8 16-bit hexadecimal blocks, colons are used to participate. For example, 2dfc: 0: 0: 0: 0217: cbff: fe8c: 0.
- IPv4 addresses are divided into “classes” and where Class A networks for some huge networks, Class C networks for thousands of smaller networks, and Class B networks between these two. Subnetting is used in IPv6 to adjust network sizes and a specific address space assignment is also given.
- IPv4 uses class-type address space to perform multicast (22.214.171.124/4). At the same time, IPv6 integrated address space is used for multicast, at FF00 :: / 8.
- IPv4 uses “broadcast” addresses so that each device can be forced to close and it can see the packets. IPv6 uses multicast groups.
- IPv4 uses 0.0.0.0 to display an unspecified address, and a class-type address (127.0.0.1) for loopback. But IPv6 :: and :: 1 uses unspecified and loopback addresses.
- IPv4 uses globally unique public addresses for traffic and “private” addresses. IPv6 uses globally unique unicast addresses and local addresses (FD00 :: / 8).
Difference between IPv4 & IPv6
|Packet size: 576 bytes required होता है और fragmentation optional||Packet size: 1280 bytes required होता है और without fragmentation|
|Packet fragmentation: Routers and sending hosts||Packet fragmentation: Sending hosts only|
|IPv4 does not have much security because IPv4 was never built from a security perspective|
|– Originally designed for isolated military network|
|– After this it was adapted for public educational and research network||IPv6 was built from the beginning with strong security, along with it – Encryption – Authentication facility was also provided.|
|The IPv4 header consists of 20 bytes and the IPv4 header contains many fields (13 fields).||The IPv6 header is just double because it has 40 bytes and the IPv6 header has fewer fields such as 8 fields.|
|ISP has IPv4 connectivity or either both IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity.||At the same time, many ISPs do not have IPv6 connectivity.|
|It has Non equal geographical distribution (> 50% USA)||There is no geographic limitation|
Why is IPv4 addresses going to end?
IPv4 uses 32 bits for its Internet addresses. Which means that it can support up to 2 ^ 32 IP addresses in total – which is around 4.29 billion.
Which may take a lot of looks, but today almost all 4.29 billion IP addresses have been given to various institutions,
So that there may be a shortage of IP addresses in the coming times. Keeping this situation in mind, IPv6 is being brought as soon as possible.
How will IPv6 solve this problem?
Like I said earlier, IPv6 uses 128-bit Internet addresses. So it can support around 2 ^ 128 Internet addresses – 340, 282, 366, 920, 938, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 if we talk about its exact value.
These are actually a lot of addresses compared to IPv4. These are so many addresses that we have to use the hexadecimal system to display these addresses.
Or simply say that there are so many addresses in IPv6 that Internet can be kept operational for a long time.
So why can’t we switch directly?
It is as if the termination of IPv4 addresses was predicted years ago, due to which the progress of switching was started from the last decade itself. But there is no hurry in this work, so this work is going on slowly.
With this, both IPv4 and IPv6 run simultaneously in parallel networks – and between them, a special gateway is needed to exchange data .
And to make such a switch, software and routers will also have to change so that they can support more advanced networks.
It requires both time and money. Therefore, these processes cannot be done directly, rather they can be changed slowly.
What will be the change for you?
Initially, they cannot make a big impact in our lives. Because nowadays almost all modern devices and operating systems actually support IPv6.
But even now there are many such routers and servers that do not support them, so that it is very easy to make a connection between the device and the Internet.
IPv6 is still in its early stage, with a lot of Bugs and security issues. And in order to function properly, these problems will have to be fixed or else a big problem may occur in the future.
Nobody has any idea about the cost and time of this change, but scientists say that this change may take a little longer.
Future of ipv6
Changes in IPv6 can see a lot of changes in the coming times. Because the problem of IP addresses, if they talk about network security, then IP is going to be better in all places.
With the help of more address, more devices can be connected together. Mobility and MultiHoming facilities can also be seen. Mobility means going from one network to another without changing the Ip address.
By the way, MultiHoming means to be connected with more than one ISP at a time, so that if there are some problems in a connection, then it can be easily transferred to another connection. Many such changes can be seen in the coming times.
I sincerely hope that I have given you complete information about what IPv4 and IPv6 is and I hope you all have understood about IPv4 and IPv6. I request all of you readers that you too share this information in your neighborhood, relatives and friends, so that our awareness will be there and it will benefit everyone.
I need your support so that I can convey more new information to you.
It has always been my endeavor that I always help my readers or readers from all sides, if you people have any doubt of any kind, then you can ask me irresponsibly.
I will definitely try to solve those Doubts. How did you like this article, what is IPv4 and IPv6?