Kernel is actually the foundational layer of an operating system (OS). It functions in a basic level, in which it communicates with hardware and managing resources, such as RAM and CPU .
Since a kernel handles many fundamental processes, it has to be loaded at the beginning of the boot sequence when a computer is started. Then kernel first performs a system check and it then recognizes components, such as processor , GPU , and memory .
At the same time it also checks with it whether other peripherals are connected or not. As soon as the OS is loaded and a graphical user interface appears, then kernel starts running. Even when the OS is fully loaded, the kernel is still running in the background, along with it is also managing system resources.
There are many types of kernels, but only two of them are most popular, which are monolithic kernels and microkernels.
A monolithic kernel is basically a single codebase, or a block of source code, which provides all the necessary services that are offered by the operating system. It has a very simplistic design and it creates a well-defined communication layer between hardware and software.
Microkernels also have the same type of function as monolithic kernels, but are intentionally designed to be of small size, as much as possible. Instead of managing all the resources of a single codebase, kernel handles only the most basic functions. It uses modules or “servers” to manage everything else.
For example, device drivers are typically included in a monolithic kernel, but they are split into separate modules into a microkernel.
This design is more complex, but it provides a more efficient way to use system resources and at the same time provides protection against system crashes.
Kernel Panics in Hindi
Since kernel handles the most basic functions of a computer, if it crashes, then it takes the whole computer along with it. This type of untoward is called a “kernel panic” that often occurs in macOS and Unix systems.
At the same time it has very much similarity to blue screen of death, which happens in Windows. In such a situation, if you want to recover your computer from a kernel panic, then for this you have to restart the computer.
In such a situation, if your computer produces such repeated kernel panics, then to fix it you should unplug unnecessary devices so that your problem can be fixed.